Larry R. Rogers Sr.
A native of Chicago and one of the founding partners of Power Rogers, Larry
R. Rogers, Sr. has dedicated more than 37 years of his career to representing
the most difficult personal injury and wrongful death cases.
Mr. Rogers has excelled as a trial attorney, winning numerous multimillion-dollar personal injury settlements and verdicts for his clients in many types of cases, including wrongful death, medical malpractice, motor vehicle negligence, and aviation accident cases.
His impressive record of success started early in his career. After conducting his very first trial in Cook County, Mr. Rogers won $27 million in a product liability case for his client, which in 1985, was the largest personal injury verdict in Illinois. Since then, Mr. Rogers has recovered many multimillion-dollar personal injury verdicts and settlements, including recently winning $55 million for a brain-damaged woman, Illinois’ largest medical malpractice verdict in the last decade.
A leader in the personal injury field, Mr. Rogers was elected president of both the Cook County Bar Association and the Illinois Trial Lawyers Association, serving as the latter’s first African American president. Recognized nationally as a highly skilled personal injury litigator, he was named one of the Ten Most Influential Illinois Lawyers by American Lawyer Media, and one of the nation’s top 10 litigators by the National Law Journal.
During his distinguished career, Mr. Rogers has been honored with numerous awards, including the Distinguished Alumni Award from St. Xavier University; the DePaul University College of Law Alumni Award for Outstanding Service to the Legal Profession; and awarded Honorary Doctorate degrees from DePaul University College of Law and St. Xavier University. He is listed in Harvard Law Graduates Naifeh and Smith book, The Best Lawyers in America every year since 2001, and is a Fellow of the International Academy of Trial Lawyers, the International Society of Barristers, and the American College of Trial Lawyers. Larry was named one of the 2019 Best Lawyers, Lawyer of the Year for Personal Injury Litigation in Chicago and also recieved this honor in 2016. Additionally, he was selected as one of the top trial lawyers by LawDragon, a group which selects the top 500 trial lawyers in the country. He was also selected by his peers for the Leading Lawyer Network as a leading lawyer in personal injury law. Mr. Rogers is a member of the Advisory Board for Leading Lawyers Network.
- Member -Illinois Supreme Court Special Commission on the Administration of Justice (1991 - 1995).
- Member - United States Senate Judicial Nominations Commission for the Northern District of Illinois (1993 - 1996).
- Member - Illinois Supreme Court Committee on Jury Instructions in Civil Cases (1995-2003).
- Member - Committee on Racial, Ethnic and Sexual Orientation Awareness in the Circuit Court of Cook County (1997).
- Member - Board of Directors, South Side Help Center (1994 - 2000).
- Life Member – DePaul University Board of Trustees (2019)
- Member - Board of Trustees, St. Xavier University (2000 - 2007).
- Member - Board of Trustees, PUSH for Excellence, Inc. (1996 - 2000).
- Member - Board of Trustees, Providence-St. Mel School (1995-2000).
- Member - Board of Directors, Legal Assistance Foundation of Chicago (1996-2001).
- Member - Board of Directors, Center for Disability and Elderly Law (2001 - 2004).
- Member - Board of Trustees, John Marshall Law School (2008 - present).
- Member - DePaul University, College of Law, Dean's Advisory Council (2008 - present).
- Chairman - Chairman, Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority (2009 - June 2010).
- Member - Board of Metropolitan Pier and Exposition Authority (2010)
- Member - Board of Trustees, DePaul University, (2010- 2018)
- Co-Chair - Circuit Court of Cook County Black Line Trial Call Study Committee, 2011
- Member - Board of Trustees, City Colleges of Chicago, 2011- 2015.
- Member - Board of Directors, Cook County Justice for Children.
M. v. Ravenswood Hospital, et al. (Co-Counsel)
(2000) Medical malpractice. A 54 year old woman suffered bleeding during a bronchoscopy exam. A delay in intubation left her with insufficient oxygen causing cardiac arrest and irreversible brain damage, leaving her with quadriplegia, loss of speech and severe contractions.
Jury Verdict: $55,439,269.59
Offer Before Trial: $13,500,000.00
A.H. v. Allied Barton
(2017) Wrongful Death, Negligent Security:
The Plaintiffs worked for a law firm in the large office building located at 500 West Madison Street. Allied Barton provided Security Services to the building. On December 8, 2006, a former client of the firm’s entered the 500 West Madison office building armed with a revolver, chain, padlock, hunting knife, and hammer in order to seek out and kill one of the attorneys who he mistakenly believed had wronged him. After loitering in the building’s lobby and being turned away by the security desk, the former client was permitted access to the law firm, located on an upper-level floor, by Allied Barton security. Once he had gained access to the law firm, he shot and killed three individuals and injured the fourth. Joseph A. Power, Jr. represented the Estate of M.M. and recovered $14.6 million for his client. Larry R. Rogers, Jr. represented the Estate of A.H. and secured an $11 million verdict for his client. James Power represented R.L. and secured a $5 million verdict.
D. v. Syntex (Co-Counsel)
(1985) Product liability. Two minor plaintiffs fed infant formula, Neo-Mull-Soy, which was deficient in chloride, a required nutrient. They both suffered brain injury resulting in learning disabilities.
Jury Verdict: $27,000,000.00
Reduced on Post-Trial
Motion by Trial Judge: $ 8,000,000.00
Offer Before Trial: $ 300,000.00
D. v. Nettleton Specialized Carriers, Inc. (Co-Counsel)
(2011) Trucking. The Plaintiff was stopped at the Edens spur ramp at the beginning of a construction zone back-up of the Edens expressway. He was rear-ended by a tractor trailer owned by the Defendants and operated by an employee and/or agent of the Defendants who was traveling at least 65 mph. The driver testified he applied his brakes prior to the collision, but did not have time to stop. He claimed he had just exited a curve. The collision occurred after 3,000 feet of a straight roadway near the tail-end of the Edens spur. Plaintiff sustained a C5-C6 tetraplegic injury.
D. v. UHS of Bethesda, Inc., et al. (Co-Counsel)
(1995) Medical malpractice. A 29-year-old employee of Mount Sinai Hospital-North, was diagnosed as having migraine headaches and returned to work by a physician who examined him at the hospital on two separate occasions. A week after the last visit he had suffered a thrombosis which resulted in a stroke and left sided hemiplegia from olycythemia rubra vera which went undiagnosed. The jury found the defendants negligent for not performing a CBC on either visit which would have led to the diagnosis and that the physician was an agent of the hospital. This is the highest verdict in Illinois for 1995.
Jury Verdict: $11,962,390.00
Offer before trial: $ 1,000,000.00
Offer during trial: $ 1,600,000.00
C. v. Union Pacific Railroad Co., et al.
(1998) Trucking. A 71 year old African-American man was injured on July 25, 1995 when a semi-tractor trailer owned by Chicago &Northwestern Railway Co. and Union Pacific Railroad Co. pulled from a stop sign at a T-intersection in Northlake in front of a truck traveling eastbound in which plaintiff was a passenger. He suffered a spinal cord injury which left him with incomplete paralysis in his arms and legs.
Jury Verdict: $10,430,617.92
Offer before trial: $ 1,600,000.00
C., et al v. Transport Carriers, Inc., et al.
(2006) Trucking. The accident involved an International tractor which lost control on the ramp exiting the Chicago Skyway leading to the Day Ryan on July 1, 1999. The International tractor was being driven by Jesse Blackmon of Transport Carriers, Inc. After Mr. Blackmon lost control on the ramp, the Nissan Van being operated by plaintiff, attempted to avoid striking the Blackmon tractor and was rear-ended by a truck operated by Robert Lachowski of American Shipping and Packing. C. was traveling with his wife and children, 9 years old, 3 years old, and 9 months old. C. died as a result of his injuries.
Jury Verdict: $10,400,000.00
Offer before trial: $ 500,000.00
Offer during trial: $ 1,700,000.00
C. v. Advocate South Suburban Hospital
(2014) Medical malpractice. On September 4, 2007, Plaintiff presented to Advocate South Suburban Hospital after experiencing several days of diarrhea. He was admitted and taken to surgery on September 15th and during the surgery, he was administered the vasopressor medication Levophed for a drop in his blood pressure. Post-operatively, a consulting cardiologist ordered that the Levophed be weaned off and he be given Neosynephrine if his systolic blood pressure dropped below 100. Plaintiffs maintained that from September 15 - 17, the ICU nursing staff failed to perform dynamic response testing on the arterial line that was being used to evaluate Plaintiff's blood pressure and as a result it was falsely reading systolic blood pressures below 100 when his true blood pressures were higher. As a result the nursing staff was administering maximum doses of vasopressors when he needed little if any. The excessive vasopressors caused vasoconstriction in his blood vessels and poor perfusion to his extremities causing them to become ischemic from lack of blood flow. As a result of the poor perfusion caused by the vasopressors, Plaintiff 's left hand, and the toes on both of his feet became ischemic, necrotic, gangrenous and needed to be amputated. The defense maintained that Plaintiff was a very sick man who was in septic shock with 5 system multi-organ failure and the poor perfusion was the result of a coagulopathy cascade caused by the sepsis and the body's native shunting of blood to vital organs for survival. The defense maintained that Plaintiff desperately needed the vasopressors to survive his life threatening condition and but for the high doses of vasopressors, he would have died.
Jury Verdict: $10,375,050.00
Offer during trial: $ 1,200,000.00
G. v. West Suburban Hospital, et al.
(2006) Medical malpractice/Birth Injury. T.G. was admitted to the hospital and medical personnel attached a fetal monitor and started induction of labor with Pitocin on October 22, 2001 because she was pre-eclamptic. T.G. began dilating in the early hours of October 23, 2001 and had an epidural administered. Tanisha was fully dilated at approximately 10 p.m. on 10/23/01, began pushing, after hours of inadequate progress of labor a C-section was done at 2:51 a.m. on October 24, 2001. During labor episodes of hyper-stimulation of the uterus occurred and decelerations of fetal heart tones. The fetal monitor also malfunctioned and failed to accurately record contractions. During T.G.=s labor, her fetal heart rate monitoring tracings revealed signs of and were consistent with fetal stress and/or distress. Drs. Lopez, Smith, Tarpey and Macumber failed to recognize the significance of changes in the fetal heart rate as evidenced on the fetal monitor strips from October 23rd through October 24th 2001. D.G. was delivered by emergency caesarean section on October 24, 2001. Upon birth, D.G. was not breathing and depressed and shortly after birth transferred to Children=s Memorial Hospital where she was diagnosed with severe cerebral palsy, spastic quadriplegia and seizure disorder.
G. v. Skokie Valley Hospital (Co-Counsel)
(1990) Medical malpractice. After sustaining numerous injuries in a motorcycle accident, including a C-2 "hangman's" fracture and bruising of his spinal cord, student ended up paralyzed as a result of the failure to adequately replace his blood lost in the accident and appropriately intubate him.
Jury Verdict: $7,012,000.00
Offer Before Trial: $1,200,000.00
Offer During trial: $2,000,000.00
B. v. Unnamed hospital
(2005) Medical malpractice. An 8 1/2-year-old boy suffers cardio pulmonary arrest in the operative suit during a tendon release procedures resulting in braining damage. Prior to the procedure, the minor plaintiff was severely mentally disabled.
P. v. WGN Broadcasting Company
(1999) Auto Accident. P. was a 50 year old passenger in a vehicle struck by a WGN satellite antenna van which ran a red light. P. suffered chest trauma and while undergoing an angiogram procedure, he suffered a stroke and cardiac arrest. He was left with partial paralysis on the left side of his body.
T. v. Swedish American Hospital, et al.
(2003) Medical Malpractice. The case involved injury to T. who was 18 months old on December 21, 1993 when she underwent a cardiac muscle biopsy that was performed by Dr. Bruce Hecht at Swedish American Hospital in Rockford, Illinois. As a result of the biopsy, T. suffered cardiac arrest leading to hypoxic-ischemic encelphalopathy. The settlement represents a record high settlement in Winnebago County.
H. v. Sinclair Cartage, Inc., et al.
(2007) Automobile/Truck. H., a Protected Person who suffered a traumatic brain injury as a result of a motor vehicle accident. The accident which occurred on April 19, 2006 involved a tractor trailer, driven by Daniel Jorgensen who was employed by Sinclair Cartage, who struck H.=s vehicle at 4th and Virginia Avenue in Gary, Indiana.
G. v. 69 West Washington Management Company, LLC, et al.
(2008) Premises. This matter arises out of the October 17, 2003 fire at the Cook County Administration building, 69 West Washington. It is one of the 22 lawsuits filed as a result the tragic incident. G. sustained injuries of based on the distress she experienced as a result of being trapped in a stairwell of the building and eventually passing out due to smoke inhalation.
N.W. v. Advocate
(2015) Medical Malpractice. The Plaintiff’s Decedent presented to the Defendant hospital in the early morning complaining of a sickle cell crisis. Plaintiff alleged that due to a failure to properly and timely monitor and treat Plaintiff’s Decedent over the next 36 hours, the Decedent developed acute chest syndrome, which caused her death. Defendants claimed that the Decedent’s acute chest syndrome developed rapidly due to a fat embolism, and that intervention would not have prevented her death.
V.W., Special Administrator of the Estate of N.W., Deceased v. Advocate South Suburban Medical Center
(2015) Medical Malpractice – wrongful death. Plaintiff’s wife began experiencing pain in her legs and believed she was having a sickle cell crisis. In the early morning of March 7, 2010, Decedent was admitted to Advocate for close monitoring and she was provided intravenous fluids, analgesics, corticosteroids and oxygen therapy. Shortly after midnight on March 8, 2010, she began experiencing tachycardia with periods of tachypnea, later that day on March 8, 2010, Decedent was found unresponsive. A postmortem examination revealed that she died as a result of sickle cell disease with acute chest syndrome.
H. v. Galen Hospital, et al.
(2002) Medical Malpractice/Wrongful Death. H. was 17 years old at the time of her death, she left surviving one daughter who was 2 months old at the time of her death. Dr. Rajasekhar, who was a general pediatrician, was negligent and deviated from the standard of care in failing to treat H. for Long Q.T. Syndrome. Dr. Rajasekhar first treated H. in March of 1989. She continued to treat her until the time of her death on December 15, 1990. Specifically, Dr. Rajasekhar failed to treat H. for the cardiac condition, Long Q.T. Syndrome. Dr. Rajasekhar failed to prescribe and maintain Lakisha on anti-arrhythmic medication; failed to hospitalize H. for her cardiac condition; and failed to order timely and appropriate diagnostic studies. It should be noted that Dr. Rajasekhar knew that H.=s elder brother died on December 15, 1990 of a suspected cardiac condition. Dr. Rajasekhar also treated H=s younger brother, who passed away on November 6, 1993 at the age of 10.
Case Name not disclosed per order of Court.
(1997) Premises liability. A 35 year old husband and father of one child, died as a result of smoke inhalation in a fire at 6531 S. Lowe Avenue in Chicago, Illinois. The fire started in an accumulation of trash in the garbage chute room.
W. v. University of Chicago Hospital
(2010) Medical malpractice/wrongful death. W. was admitted to University of Chicago Hospital with a history of shortness of breath and arterial flutter/fibrillation. He was status post-mitral valve replacement on October 2, 2006 for endocarditis. W. was admitted to a medical floor and medications were ordered to treat his cardiac arrhythmia, W. developed bradycardia and hypotension as a result of the medications ordered to treat his cardiac arrhythmia. As a result of the above treatment, W. arrested, was resuscitated, but arrested again and was unable to be resuscitated and expired.
R. v. Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center
(1991) Medical malpractice. R. suffered hypoxia during delivery which went undetected due to physicians' failure to properly monitor her mother's labor. R. suffers from cerebral palsy as a result of the hypoxia.
Henry Jones, as Special Administrator of the Estate of Georgette Watson, deceased v. Joseph Feldman, M.D., et al.
(2008) Medical malpractice - Wrongful Death. Georgette Watson was scheduled to undergo a root canal by Dr. Joseph Feldman and Dr. Lawrence Feldman. She was given too much sedation and Dr. Joseph Feldman and Dr. Lawrence Feldman failed to monitor her adequately. Ms. Watson suffered cardiac arrest at the dental office, 911 was called and she was transported to Illinois Masonic where she was pronounced dead.
Sandra Hardy, Independent Administrator of the Estate of Johnathon Hardy, Deceased v. Galen Hospital, et al.
(2002) Medical malpractice - Wrongful Death. Johnathon Hardy was 9 years old at the time of his death. Johnathon Hardy had a cardiac condition known as Long Q.T. Syndrome. Johnathon Hardy, as well as his sister, Lakisha Hardy, sought treatment from Dr. Rajasekhar at Humana Health Plan, Inc. Dr. Rajasekhar was the general pediatrician. Dr. Rajasekhar treated Johnathon from April 15, 1990 until the time of his death on November 6, 1993. Dr. Rajasekhar was negligent and deviated from the standard of care in their care and treatment of Johnathon Hardy. Specifically, plaintiffs allege that defendant Dr. Rajasekhar failed to prescribe and maintain Johnathon Hardy on anti-arrhythmic medications; failed to hospitalize him; and failed to order timely and appropriate diagnostic studies.
LaDonna C.Foster, Adm. of the Estate of Yvette Foster, etc., et al. V. East Lake Corporation, et al.
(2000) Premise liability. This case involves a 47-year-old- mother, Yvonne Foster, who died as a result of injuries suffered at the East Lake Housing Development at 3555 S. Cottage Grove in Chicago. Ms. Foster left surviving her four children, Gregory, LaDonna, Alex Jr., who were adults, and Linda, her 11-year-old minor. The complaint alleged that the fire alarm system failed to operate throughout the building and that fire hoses in some stairwells were inoperable
Irnell Mickey as Special Administrator of the Estate of Natasha Mickey, dec=d. and as Special Administrator of the Estate of Sasha Mickey, dec=d. v. Imre Hidvegi, M.D., et al
(2007) Medical Malpractice. This case involves an 8-month pregnant mother, Natasha Mickey, who was being treated by Drs. Hidvegi and Faikpui at Lincoln Medical Center for prenantal care. During the court of her pregnancy, she develo9ped several urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis. Ultimately, the infections worsened, Natasha went into cardiac arrest at home on the morning of August 11, 2001 and was transported to Ingalls Memorial Hospital where an emergency Cesarean section was performed post-mortem. the infant, Sasha Mickey, was resuscitated following delivery and was transferred to Northwestern memorial Hospital where she died on August 13, 1999. An autopsy was done on Natasha and the conclusion was acute pyelonephritis was the cause of her death.
Alma Smith, as Special Administrator of the Estate of Ronald Mahone, deceased V. Carpentersville Quarry, et al.
(2006) Motor vehicle - Wrongful Death. Ronald Mahone (the decedent) single with no dependents was employed as a postal worker and working at the time of this occurrence, when he exited a store and was struck by an illegally parked van when it was struck by a cement truck driven by defendant, Krista Patterson, working for PF Materials/Action Concrete & Supply and Carpentersville Quarry.
Estates of Peggy Stallworth and Angela Stallworth V. Village of Worth
(2002) Motor vehicle - Wrongful Death. Peggy Taylor and Angela Stallworth were killed when their automobile was struck by an automobile driven by Earl G. Johnson. At the time of the collision, the automobile driven by Earl G. Johnson was in the process of fleeing several marked and unmarked police vehicles from the Villages of Oak Lawn, Chicago Ridges, and Worth. The vehicle pursuit was initiated by Detective Martin Knolmayer in the Village of Worth. While attempting to elude the police vehicles, the automobile driven by Earl G. Johnson collided with the Decedents= automobile. The case is significant because the eluding vehicle in a police pursuit struck and caused the injuries
to plaintiff where summary judgment had always been granted and affirmed on appeal when the accident was caused by the eluding vehicle and not the police vehicle.
Darien Bass V. Cook County Hospital, et al.
(2000) Medical malpractice. Mr. Bass suffered a subdural hematoma after falling from a gurney while a patient at Cook County Hospital.
Phoebe Joseph, Special Administrator of the Estate of Henry Joseph v. Voest-Alpine, et al., Hammond, Indiana
(1996) Product liability - Wrongful death. Henry Joseph was a 61 year old worker for the U.S. Steel plant - Gary Works, Indiana operating a continuous caster manufactured by defendant, Voest-Alpine. A 235 ton ladle of molten steel erupted showering him with molten steel causing his death. The continuous caster lacked overhead protection to prevent molten steel from coming in contact with workers such as Mr. Joseph in the event an eruption occurred. Mr. Joseph was survived by his 59 year old wife, Phoebe Joseph.
Jury Verdict: $3,000,000.00
Offer Before Trial: $ 150,000.00
D.F., as Special Administrator of the Estate of E.F., Deceased v. Fransciscan Alliance d/b/a St. James Hospital, et al.
(2015) Medical Malpractice---wrongful death. Defts allegedly failed to properly and timely address the risk of patient M-56 developing deep vein thrombosis due to his inactivity and other factors during his hospitalization for treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis, acute renal insufficiency, and hyperkalemia. As a result, he suffered a fatal pulmonary embolism while preparing for discharge home on October 8, 2010. He is survived by his wife and three adult daughters.
- J.D., DePaul University College of Law, 1983
- B.A. Philosophy, St. Xavier College, 1974
- Admitted to Illinois Bar, 1983
- Admitted to United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois, 1983
- Admitted to United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois, Federal Trial Bar, 1985
- Admitted to United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit, 1988
- Admitted to the Supreme Court of the United States of America, 1989
- Admitted to the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin, 1990
- Admitted to United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit, 2007
Chicago Bar Association
- Board of Managers, 2010-2012 Nominating Committee, 2008
Cook County Bar Association
- President, 1991-1992
- President-Elect, 1990-1991
- Second Vice President, 1989-1990
- Third Vice President, 1988-1989
- Board of Directors, 1985-1994
- Nominating Committee, 1985, 1991
- Judicial Evaluation Committee, 1986-1987
Illinois State Bar Association
- Ad Hoc Committee on Judiciary, 1994
American Bar Association
National Bar Association
- Board of Governors, 1990-1991 (CCBA Affiliate Rep.)
Illinois Trial Lawyers Association
- President, 2000-2001
- President Elect, 1999
- Second Vice President, 1998
- Third Vice President, 1997
- Treasurer, 1989-1990
- Board of Managers, 1987-present
- Membership Committee, 1992
- Executive Committee, 1996-present
- Nominating Committee, 1995
- Legislative Committee - Co-Chair 1996-present
- Participated in legislative lobbying efforts to oppose Medical Malpractice Act of 1985 and Civil Justice Reform Act of 1995
American Association for Justice (formerly The Association of Trial Lawyers of America)
- Sustaining Member
- Public Affairs Committee - 1995-present
- Public Action Management Committee - 1995
- Committee on Courts - 1996
- Minority Caucus - 1994 - present
International Society of Barristers
International Academy of Trial Lawyers
American College of Trial Lawyers
- Best Lawyers, Lawyer of the Year for Personal Injury Litigation, 2016 & 2019
- Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters – John Marshall Law School (2019)
- Leading Lawyers Magazine 2016, Top 100 Lawyers
- AVVO Superb Rating
- Illinois Trial Lawyers Association, Leonard M. Ring Lifetime Achievement Award (2014).
- Diversity Scholarship Foundation, Unity & Advocate Diversity Award (2013).
- Jury Verdict Reporter, Award for a Record Medical Malpractice Verdict (2010).
- Earl Burrus Dickerson Award, Chicago Bar Association, (2010).
- Honorary Doctor of Public Service - St. Xavier University (2010).
- LawDragon, selected as One of the Top Trial Lawyers (2009)
- Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters - DePaul University College of Law (2009)
- Distinguished Alumni Award - St. Xavier University, College of Arts and Sciences (2008)
- Recognized as Illinois Super Lawyer 2005-Present
- Outstanding Service To the Legal Profession Award, DePaul University College of Law (2003)
- Listed by Harvard Law Graduates Naifeh and Smith in their book The Best Lawyers in America (2001-present)
- American Lawyer Media, 2000. Listed as one of the Ten Most Influential Illinois Lawyers
- National Law Journal, 1999. Listed as one of the Nation's Top Ten Litigators
- Richard E. Westbrook Award in recognition of legal excellence, presented by the Cook County Bar Association (1987 and 1999).
- BLSA Distinguished Alumni Award, presented by Black Law Students Association, DePaul University, College of Law (1995).
- Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority Monarch award, presented for excellence in the legal profession (1995).
- Best Lawyers listing since 1999.